Investigating Teacher-Learner Classroom Interaction: Learner-Contingent Feedback across Proficiency Levels and Teacher Experience

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Candidate of TEFL, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran


Initiation, Response, and Feedback (IRF) is the dominant classroom interactional pattern that, if employed adequately, can facilitate learners’ transition from other-regulation to self-regulation by providing scaffolded learner-contingent feedback. However, the extent to which the teaching experience and learners’ proficiency level may impact teachers’ employment of this interactional resource still awaits scrutiny. Hence, the present ethnographic classroom research explored possible variations in novice and experienced teachers’ use of IRF patterns and graduated/contingent feedback (GCF) when teaching upper and lower intermediate classes. To serve the purpose, 20 English classrooms at nine branches of a well-known language school in Tabriz during the same semester were selected that were being taught by five novice and five experienced teachers teaching based on purposive sampling. The classroom procedures were observed, recorded, and transcribed based on a validated researcher-designed observation form. The frequency of the IRF and GCF in the transcribed data were estimated and analyzed through a Chi-square test to find out variations across the proficiency level and teaching experience. The results revealed that teaching experience could predict the frequency of the IRF pattern use but not the GCF in the final turn; GCF was significantly disproportionate to the general use of IRF patterns and more frequent at a lower intermediate level. 


Article Title [فارسی]

بررسی تعامل کلاسی معلم-زبان آموز: بازخورد زبان آموز-محور در سطوح مختلف و تجربه تدریس

Abstract [فارسی]

تعامل سه گانه آغازین، پاسخ، بازخورد الگوی رایج تعامل کلاسی  در بافتهای آموزشی است که کاربرد صحیح آن با استفاده از بازخورد حمایتی زبان آموز-محور می تواند انتقال زبان آموز از مرحله دیگر-کارآمدی به خود-کارآمدی تسهیل بخشد. با این حال ، میزان تاثیر تجربه کاری و سطح زبان آموزان بر کاربرد معلمان از این الگوی تعاملی نیاز به تحقیق بیشتردارد. از این رو ، پژوهش کلاسی حاضر با هدف بررسی تفاوتهای احتمالی معلمان با تجربه و کم تجربه از الگوهای تعامل کلاسی و میزان تطابق بازخورد آنها با سطح زبان آموزان پیش متوسط و پس متوسط انجام گردید. در راستای هدف تحقیق، نمونه هدف مند تحقیق شامل 20 کلاس درس انگلیسی از نه  شعبه موسسه زبان انگلیسی شناخته شده ایی در تبریز انتخاب شد که توسط 5 معلم کم تجربه و 5 معلم باتجربه تدریس می شدند. فرآیند تدریس کلاسی معلمان بر اساس فرم مشاهده محقق –ساخته که مراحل روایی و پایایی آن انجام شده بود، مشاهده ، ضبط و رونویسی شد. داده های رونویسی به صورت استاندارد کدگذاری و با آزمون آماری  خی دو تحلیل گردید. نتایج نشان داد که تجربه تدریس می تواند فراوانی استفاده از الگوی تعامل کلاسی را پیش بینی کند اما تاثیری درکاربرد بازخورد زبان آموز-محور ندارد. نسبت کاربرد بازخورد زبان آموز-محور به تعامل کلاسی بسیار پایین بود و بسامد بیشتری در سطوح پیش متوسط نشان داد. کاربردهای آموزشی یافته های تحقیق مورد بحث قرار خواهد گرفت.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • آغازش-پاسخ-بازخورد
  • بازخورد زبان آموز مدار
  • تجربه تدریس
  • تعامل کلاسی
  • سطح زبانی
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