The Role of Planned Preemptive and Reactive Focus-on-Form in Developing L2 Learners’ Grammatical Accuracy

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics, Allameh Mohaddes Nouri University, Nour, Iran

2 MA in TEFL, Allameh Mohaddes Nouri University, Nour, Iran

Abstract

Drawing on the principles of noticing hypothesis, focus on form (FonF) instruction emerged as a mediator between meaning-focused and form-focused approaches to teaching L2 grammar. The present study examines the differential effects of two forms of FonF, that is, planned preemptive and reactive FonF on Iranian beginner EFL learners’ grammatical accuracy in written output. Following a quasi-experimental design, 40 beginner learners, including both male and female, were recruited out of 100 based on the results of a proficiency test and then assigned to two experimental groups. One group received planned preemptive feedback on related grammatical items to enable the learners to avoid any errors while the other group received reactive FonF which was implemented by offering explicit corrective feedback on learners’ errors after the occurrence. The results of t data analysis revealed that while both groups underwent a significant change in terms of L2 grammatical accuracy, the planned preemptive group outperformed the reactive group which indicated that (a) presenting language before the task performance could result in enhanced noticing and improved performance and (b) drawing students’ attention to the linguistic elements during meaningful activities presents an additional difficulty of distributing attention over both form and meaning.

Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

نقش آموزش فرم گرای پیشگیرانه برنامه ریزی شده و واکنشی در تقویت دقت دستوری فراگیران زبان دوم

Abstract [فارسی]

آموزش فرم گرا که براساس اصول فرضیه آگاهی است، به عنوان یک میانجی بین رویکردهای محتوا محور و رویکرد های ساختار گرا در آموزش دستور زبان دوم شکل گرفت. مطالعه حاضر به منظور بررسی تأثیر متفاوت دو نوع آموزش فرم گرا، یعنی آموزش فرم گرایپیشگیرانه برنامه ریزی شده و آموزش فرم گرایواکنشی، بر دقت دستوری زبان آموزان مبتدی ایرانی در تولید نوشتاری انجام شد. در این مطالعه شبه تجربی، از بین 100 نفر زبان آموز، 40 زبان آموز مبتدی - شامل هر دو جنسیت دختر و پسر- بر اساس نتایج آزمون تعیین سطح انتخاب شده و سپس به دو گروه آزمایشی تقسیم شدند. یک گروه، با هدف توانمندکردن زبان آموزان در بازداری از هرگونه خطا، بازخورد پیشگیرانه برنامه ریزی شده را در زمینه نکات دستوری لازم و مرتبط دریافت کردند در حالی که گروه دیگر آموزش فرم گرایواکنشی دریافت کردند که از طریق ارائه بازخورد تصحیحی مستقیم به خطاهای زبانی زبان آموزان و پس از رخداد خطا انجام می شد. نتایج تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که اگرچه در هر دو گروه تغییرات قابل توجهی در زمینه دقت دستوری زبان دوم دیده شد، اما گروهی که بازخورد پیشگیرانه برنامه ریزی شده دریافت کرده بود بر گروه دیگر با بازخورد تصحیحی برتری یافت و عملکرد بسیار بهتری از خود به نمایش گذاشت. این نتایج حاکی از آن است که (الف) پیش آگاهی قبل از انجام فعالیت می تواند به آگاهی بیشتر و عملکرد بهتر بیانجامد و (ب) سوق دادن ذهن زبان آموزان به سمت نکات دستوری هنگام فعالیت های محتوا محور باعث ایجاد مشکل تصمیم گیری بین توجه به نکات دستوری از یک طرف و محتوا از طرفی دیگر می شود. 

Keywords [فارسی]

  • توجه به عناصر زبانی تعاملی
  • توجه به عناصر زبانی پیشگیرانه برنامه ریزی شده
  • توجه به عناصر زبانی واکنشی
  • دقت دستوری
  • بازخورد تصحیحی
Ammar, A., & Spada, N. (2006). One size fits all?: Recasts, prompts, and L2 learning. Studies in second language acquisition, 28(4), 543-574.
Asgarikia, P. (2014). The effects of task type, strategic planning and no planning on written performance of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 276-285.
Crookes, G. (1989). Planning and interlanguage variation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 11, 367-83.
Ellis, R. (1987). Interlanguage variability in narrative discourse: Style shifting in the use of the past tense. Studies in second language acquisition, 9(1), 1-19.
Ellis, R. (2001). Investigating form focused instruction. Form focused Instruction and Second Language learning, 1-46: Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Ellis, R. (2005). Planning and task performance in a second language (Vol. 11): John Benjamins Publishing.
Ellis, R. (2016). Focus on form: A critical review. Language Teaching Research, 20(3), 405-428.
Ellis, R., Basturkmen, H., & Loewen, S. (2001). Preemptive focus on form in the ESL classroom. TESOL quarterly, 35(3), 407-432.
Ellis, R., Basturkmen, H., & Loewen, S. (2002). Doing focus-on-form. System, 30(4), 419-432.
Ellis, R., Loewen, S., & Erlam, R. (2006). Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and the acquisition of L2 grammar. Studies in second language acquisition, 28(2), 339-368.
Ellis, R., & Yuan, F. (2004). The effects of planning on fluency, complexity, and accuracy in second language narrative writing. Studies in second Language acquisition, 26(1), 59-84.
Ellis, R., & Yuan, F. (2005). The effects of careful within-task planning on oral and written task performance. Planning and task performance in a second language, 11, 167-192.
Fotos, S., & Ellis, R. (1991). Communicating about grammar: A task‐based approach. TESOL quarterly25(4), 605-628.
Gholami, J., & Aliyari, S. (2015). The impact of planned preemptive focus on form on Iranian EFL learners’ essay writing ability. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 10(3), 234-245.
Gooch, R., Saito, K., & Lyster, R. (2016). Effects of recasts and prompts on L2 pronunciation development: Teaching English/ɹ/to Korean adult EFL learners. System, 60, 117-127.
Heift, T. (2013). Preemptive feedback in CALL. Second Language Interaction in Diverse Educational Contexts, 34, 189.
Hill, L. A. (1980). Intermediate steps to understanding: Oxford University Press.
Kellogg, R. T. (1996). A model of working memory in writing.
Kargozari, H. R., Soleimani, H., Jafarigohar, M., & Hemmati, F. (2016). Comparing the effects of two types of planning on the Iranian EFL learners’ writing performance in terms of fluency, accuracy, and complexity.
Kim, J., & Nassaji, H. (2017). Incidental focus on form and the role of learner extraversion. Language Teaching Research, 1362168817699642.
Larson-Hall, J. (2010). A Guide to Doing Statistics in Second Language Research Using SPSS. New York20, 199-204.
Levelt, W. J. (1989). Speaking: From intention to articulation. ACL: MIT Press Series in Natural-Language Processing. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (1990). Focus-on-form and corrective feedback in communicative language teaching: Effects on second language learning. Studies in second language acquisition, 12(4), 429-448.
Loewen, S. (2011). Focus on form. Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning, 2, 576-592.
Long, M. H. (1991). Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology. Foreign language research in cross-cultural perspective, 2(1), 39-52.
Long, M. H. (2000). Focus on form in task-based language teaching. Language policy and pedagogy: Essays in honor of A. Ronald Walton, 179-192.
Lyster, R. (2004). Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction. Studies in second language acquisition, 26(3), 399-432.
Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in second language acquisition, 19(1), 37-66.
Lyster, R., Saito, K., & Sato, M. (2013). Oral corrective feedback in second language classrooms. Language teaching, 46(1), 1-40.
Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2015). Second language research: Methodology and design: Routledge.
Mackey, A., & Philp, J. (1998). Conversational interaction and second language development: Recasts, responses, and red herrings? The Modern Language Journal, 82(3), 338-356.
Marzban, A., & Mokhberi, M. (2012). The effect of focus on form instruction on intermediate EFL learners’ grammar learning in task-based language teaching. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 5340-5344.
Nassaji, H. (2010). The occurrence and effectiveness of spontaneous focus on form in adult ESL classrooms. Canadian Modern Language Review, 66(6), 907-933.
Ortega, L. (1999). Planning and focus on form in L2 oral performance. Studies in second language acquisition, 21(1), 109-148.
Ortega, L. (2005). What do learners plan? Learner-driven attention to form during pre-task planning. Planning and task performance in a second language, 77-109.
Panahzade, V. & Gholami, J. (2014). The Relative Impacts of Planned Preemptive vs. Delayed Reactive FonF on EFL Learners’ Lexical Resource. The Journal of Language Teaching and Learning, 4(1), 69-83.
Pawlak, M. (2014). Error correction in the foreign language classroom: Reconsidering the issues: Springer Science & Business Media.
Piri, F., Barati, H., & Ketabi, S. (2012). The Effects of Pre-task, On-line, and both Pre-task and On-line Planning on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy–The Case of Iranian EFL Learners’ Written Production. English Language Teaching, 5(6), 158.
Rahimi, A., & Dastjerdi, H. V. (2012). Impact of immediate and delayed error correction on EFL learners’ oral production: CAF. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), 45-54.
Rahimpour, M., & Nariman-Jahan, R. (2011). The Effects of Planning on Writing Narrative Task Performance with Low and High EFL Proficiency. English Language Teaching, 4(1), 120-127.
Rassaei, E. (2013). Corrective feedback, learners’ perceptions, and second language development. System, 41(2), 472-483.
Rassaei, E., & Moinzadeh, A. (2014). Recasts, metalinguistic feedback, and learners’ perceptions: a case of Persian EFL learners. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 8(1), 39-55.
Saslow, J. M., & Ascher, A. (2011). Top Notch Fundamentals: Complete Assessment Package with ExamView Software: Pearson Education.
Sato, M., & Lyster, R. (2012). Peer interaction and corrective feedback for accuracy and fluency development: Monitoring, practice, and proceduralization. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34(4), 591-626.
Schmidt, R. W. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning1. Applied linguistics, 11(2), 129-158.
Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention in P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 3-32). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Applied Linguistics.
Seyyedi, K., Ismail, S. A. M. M., Orang, M., & Nejad, M. S. (2013). The effect of pre-task planning time on L2 learners’ narrative writing performance. English Language Teaching, 6(12), 1.
Shabani, K., & Hosseinzadeh, S. (2017). A comparative study of the effects of teacher-initiated planned preemptive and reactive focus on form on L2 learners’ accuracy in narrative writing. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1-17.
Sheen, Y., & Ellis, R. (2011). Corrective feedback in language teaching. Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning, 2, 593-610.
Simmons, T. T. N. (2010). Family & Friends 4: Workbook. Oxford University Press.
Skehan, P., & Foster, P. (1997). Task type and task processing conditions as influences on foreign language performance. Language teaching research, 1(3), 185-211.
Tavakoli, P., & Skehan, P. (2005). Strategic planning, task structure, and performance testing. Planning and task performance in a second language239273.
Van Avermaet, P., Colpin, M., Van Gorp, K., Bogaert, N., & Van den Branden, K. (2006). The role of the teacher in task-based language teaching. Task-based language education. From theory to practice, 175-196.
Williams, J. (2005). Form-focused instruction. Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning, 671-691.
Yuan, F., & Ellis, R. (2003). The effects of pre‐task planning and on‐line planning on fluency, complexity and accuracy in L2 monologic oral production. Applied linguistics, 24(1), 1-27.