The Role of Planned Preemptive and Reactive Focus-on-Form in Developing L2 Learners’ Grammatical Accuracy

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics, Allameh Mohaddes Nouri University, Nour, Iran

2 MA in TEFL, Allameh Mohaddes Nouri University, Nour, Iran


Drawing on the principles of noticing hypothesis, focus on form (FonF) instruction emerged as a mediator between meaning-focused and form-focused approaches to teaching L2 grammar. The present study examines the differential effects of two forms of FonF, that is, planned preemptive and reactive FonF on Iranian beginner EFL learners’ grammatical accuracy in written output. Following a quasi-experimental design, 40 beginner learners, including both male and female, were recruited out of 100 based on the results of a proficiency test and then assigned to two experimental groups. One group received planned preemptive feedback on related grammatical items to enable the learners to avoid any errors while the other group received reactive FonF which was implemented by offering explicit corrective feedback on learners’ errors after the occurrence. The results of t data analysis revealed that while both groups underwent a significant change in terms of L2 grammatical accuracy, the planned preemptive group outperformed the reactive group which indicated that (a) presenting language before the task performance could result in enhanced noticing and improved performance and (b) drawing students’ attention to the linguistic elements during meaningful activities presents an additional difficulty of distributing attention over both form and meaning.


Article Title [فارسی]

نقش آموزش فرم گرای پیشگیرانه برنامه ریزی شده و واکنشی در تقویت دقت دستوری فراگیران زبان دوم

Abstract [فارسی]

آموزش فرم گرا که براساس اصول فرضیه آگاهی است، به عنوان یک میانجی بین رویکردهای محتوا محور و رویکرد های ساختار گرا در آموزش دستور زبان دوم شکل گرفت. مطالعه حاضر به منظور بررسی تأثیر متفاوت دو نوع آموزش فرم گرا، یعنی آموزش فرم گرایپیشگیرانه برنامه ریزی شده و آموزش فرم گرایواکنشی، بر دقت دستوری زبان آموزان مبتدی ایرانی در تولید نوشتاری انجام شد. در این مطالعه شبه تجربی، از بین 100 نفر زبان آموز، 40 زبان آموز مبتدی - شامل هر دو جنسیت دختر و پسر- بر اساس نتایج آزمون تعیین سطح انتخاب شده و سپس به دو گروه آزمایشی تقسیم شدند. یک گروه، با هدف توانمندکردن زبان آموزان در بازداری از هرگونه خطا، بازخورد پیشگیرانه برنامه ریزی شده را در زمینه نکات دستوری لازم و مرتبط دریافت کردند در حالی که گروه دیگر آموزش فرم گرایواکنشی دریافت کردند که از طریق ارائه بازخورد تصحیحی مستقیم به خطاهای زبانی زبان آموزان و پس از رخداد خطا انجام می شد. نتایج تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که اگرچه در هر دو گروه تغییرات قابل توجهی در زمینه دقت دستوری زبان دوم دیده شد، اما گروهی که بازخورد پیشگیرانه برنامه ریزی شده دریافت کرده بود بر گروه دیگر با بازخورد تصحیحی برتری یافت و عملکرد بسیار بهتری از خود به نمایش گذاشت. این نتایج حاکی از آن است که (الف) پیش آگاهی قبل از انجام فعالیت می تواند به آگاهی بیشتر و عملکرد بهتر بیانجامد و (ب) سوق دادن ذهن زبان آموزان به سمت نکات دستوری هنگام فعالیت های محتوا محور باعث ایجاد مشکل تصمیم گیری بین توجه به نکات دستوری از یک طرف و محتوا از طرفی دیگر می شود. 

Keywords [فارسی]

  • توجه به عناصر زبانی تعاملی
  • توجه به عناصر زبانی پیشگیرانه برنامه ریزی شده
  • توجه به عناصر زبانی واکنشی
  • دقت دستوری
  • بازخورد تصحیحی
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