Adequacy and Acceptability of the English Translation of Scientific Implications: Eclectic Model of Shifting to Quran Translations of Arberry, Irving, Yusuf Ali, and Saffarzadeh

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor of English Literature, Parand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Parand, Iran

2 MA in Translation Studies, Parand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Parand, Iran

Abstract

There are verses in the Holy Quran with implicit scientific overtones, the improper translation of which may not reveal the scientific I’jaz of the Quran. This research focuses on the English translation of the scientific implications to find any relation between acceptable/adequate and explanatory/non-explanatory translations. To this end, first, the verses with a scientific impact were selected by consulting four commentaries. Second, four English translations of the Quran by Arberry, Irving, Yusuf Ali, and Saffarzadeh were chosen and theoretically analyzed in terms of Toury’s initial norm of acceptability/adequacy, an eclectic model of shifting built on Chesterman and Zahedi’s models. Third, the translations were comparatively and semantically analyzed to assess if the scientific implication had been transferred. The results show that Saffarzadeh, Yusuf Ali, and Irving’s translations use more shifts; henceforth, their translations are near to acceptability. Saffarzadeh, Yusuf Ali, and Irving have referred to the scientific implications in more cases than Arberry whose translation is near the adequacy pole. Acceptable translations conveying the implicit meaning more frequently are more explanatory and a more proper translation for translating the scientific implication.

Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

بسندگی و مقبولیت در ترجمه اشارات علمی: بررسی چهار ترجمه انگلیسی قرآن بر اساس مدل تکمیلی-تلفیقی شیفت

Abstract [فارسی]

در قرآن کریم آیاتی وجود دارند، که بطور ضمنی نکاتی علمی را مطرح میکنند. لیکن، مساله حائز اهمیت در ترجمه آیات شریف این است که ترجمه نامناسب ، "اعجاز علمی" آیات علمی را منعکس نمیکند. تحقیق پیش رو بر آن است که با بررسی ترجمه آیات علمی قرآن به زبان انگلیسی به این مهم دست یابد که آیا ارتباط معناداری بین بسندگی/ مقبولیت  و توضیحی/ غیر توضیحی بودن در امر ترجمه وجود دارد یا خیر.  به این منظور ابتدا آیاتی از قرآن کریم با مضمون علمی بر اساس چهار تفسیر معتبر انتخاب شدند. در گام بعد چهار ترجمه انگلیسی – ترجمه آربری، ایروینگ، یوسف علی و صفار زاده- انتخاب شدند. ترجمه های مذکور از دیدگاه توری و نیز دیدگاه تلفیقی-تکمیلی شیفت در ترجمه (مدل چسترمن-زاهدی) بررسی شدند. در گام سوم ترجمه ها از لحاظ کیفیت معنایی و انتقال مضمون علمی مورد مقایسه قرار گرفتند. یافته های تحقیق نشان دادند که بیشترین تعداد شیفت به ترتیب در ترجمه های صفار زاده، یوسف علی و ایروینگ وجود دارد. ترجمه های مذکور، در مدل ترجمه توری، ترجمه هایی مقبول تلقی می­شوند. صفار زاده، یوسف علی و ایروینگ که ترجمه­ای مقبول ارائه داده­اند، مضامین علمی را در تعداد بیشتری از آیات ترجمه کرده اند تا آربری که ترجمه ای بسنده دارد. ترجمه های مقبول آیات علمی ، ترجمه هایی توضیحی بوده و بطور کمی و کیفی معانی ضمنی را مناسب­تر منتقل می کنند.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • آیات علمی
  • بسندگی
  • مقبولیت
  • شیفت
  • نرم‌‌
Abdul-Raof, H. (2005). Pragmalinguistic forms in cross-cultural communication: contributions from Quran translation. Intercultural Communication Studies. 4(14), 115-130.
Al-Mehri, A. B. (2019). Scientific Truths in the Qur’ān. UK: The Qur’an Project Distribution Centre.
Arberry, A. J. (2003). The Koran interpreted, a translation by A. J. Arberry. Arthur’s Classic Novels. Retrieved from: http://arthursclassicnovels.com/arthurs. Jun, 2016.
Catford, J. C. (1965). A linguistic theory of translation. London: Oxford University Press.
Chesterman, A. (1997). Memes of translation (Vol. 10): Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Dkhissi, Y. (2018). The English translation of the Quranic text: the structural asymmetries. AWEJ for Translation & Literary Studies, 2 (4), 41-57. Available atSSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3276392 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3276392.
Dukate, A. (2007). Manipulation as a specific phenomenon in translation and interpreting. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Latvia, Latvia. Retrieved From:https://dspace.lu.lv/dspace/bitstream/handle/7/4984/6969. October, 2017.
Even-Zohar, I. (1971). An introduction to a theory of literary translation. (Doctoral dissertation). Tel Aviv University, Tel Avive.
Even-Zohar, I. (1978). Papers in historical poetics. Tel Aviv: The Porter Institute for Poetics and Semiotics.
Farghal, M. & Bloushi, M. (2012). Shifts of coherence in Quran translation. Sayyab Translation Journal (STJ), 4, 1-18.
Heidarinia, V. (2014). An analysis of shifts in English translations of some similes of the Holy Quran. (MA          thesis in translation studies). Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran.
Hermans, T. (1985). The manipulation of literature: studies in literary translation. London/Sydney: Croom Helm. 
Holmes, J. S. (2004). The name and nature of translation studies. In Lawrence Venuti. The Translation Studies Reader. 172-185. London/New York: Routledge.
Irving, T. B. (2004). The Quran: First American Version (second edition). Tehran: Sohrevardi.
Levy, J.  (1969). Die literarische Übersetzung — Theorie einer Kunstgattung, tr. Walter   Schamchula. Francfurt am Main &Bonn: Athenaum. 
Makarem Shirazi, N. (2008). Tafsir nemooneh. Tehran: Daar al Ketab al Islamiya.
Martinez-sierra, J. J. (2015). Revisiting Toury. translation tendencies.  SKASE Journal of Translation and Interpretation [online]. 8(1), 26-59.
Medadian, Gh. (2015). Non-obligatory shifts in translation: a normative enterprise.An international journal of humanities and social sciences. 2(4), 668-695.
Mollanazar, H., & Zahedi, S. (2013). Native and non-native translatrs and the distribution of initial norms. Translation Studies, 11(43), 33-50. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx ?id=503199
Molina, L. & Albir, A. (2002). Translation techniques revisited: a dynamic and functionalist approach. Meta, 47(4), 498–512. DOI: 10.7202/008033ar
Munday, J. (2001).  Introducing translation studies: theories and applications. London & New York: Routledge.
Munday, J. (2008). Introducing translation studies: theories and applications. London & New York: Routledge.
Najjar I.I., Kwee S.B., Abu al-haj T.A. (2019). Mode in Arabic-English translation: with reference to the Quran. Russian Journal of Linguistics, 23 (2), 509-522. http://dx.doi.org/10.22363/2312-9182 2019-23-2-509-522
Nida, E. (1964). Toward a science of translating: with special reference to principles and procedures involved in Bible translation. E.J. Brill, Leiden: Netherlands.
Qara’ati, M. (1995). Tafsir noor. Tehran: lessons from the Holy Quran Culture Center Publication.
Raisi, M. R. (2017). Quran and modern science, studying and comparing English translations of some related verses. (MA thesis in translation studies). Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran.
Rezvani, R & Nooraei, P. (2013). A comparative study of shifts in English translations of the Quran: a case study on “Yusuf” Chapter. Khazar Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 1(2), 70-87. doi:10.4304/jltr.1.1.77-80
Rosa, A. (2016). Descriptive translation studies – DTS (revised version). In Handbook of Translation Studies (pp. 94-104). Ed. Yves Gambier and Luc van Doorslaer. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Saffarzadeh, T. (2010). The Holy Quran. Qom: Osveh.
Shuttleworth, M. & Cowie, M. (1997). Dictionary of translation studies. Manchester, UK: St Jerome Publishing.
Tabarsi, F. H. (1997). Majma‘ al-bayan fi-tafsir al-Qur'an.  Bayrūt: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmīyah.
Tabatabai, M. H. (1984). Tafsir-al-mizan. Qom: Islamic Publications Office.
Toury, G. (1977). Translational norms and literary translation into Hebrew. Tel Aviv: The Porter Institute for Poetics and Semiotics.
Toury, G. (1978). The nature and role of norms in translation. Translation studies reader (pp. 198-211).  Ed. Lawrence Venuti. London and New York: Routledge.
Toury, G. (1980). In search of a theory of translation. Tel Aviv: The Porter Institute for Poetics and Semiotics.
Toury, G. (1995). Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond: J. Benjamins Pub.
Toury, G. J. D. t. s., & beyond. (1995). The nature and role of norms in translation. 4, 53-69.
Vinay, J.-P., & Darbelnet, J. (1995). Comparative stylistics of French and English: A methodology for translation (Vol. 11): John Benjamins Publishing.
Weissbrod, R. J. M. (1998). Translation Research in the Framework of the Tel Aviv School of Poetics and Semiotics. 43(1),35-45. doi: https://doi.org/10. 7202/004592ar
Yang, W. (2010). Brief study on domestication and foreignization in translation. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(1), 77-80. doi:10.4304/jltr.1.1.77-80
Yusuf Ali, A. (1987). The Holy Quran. Maddinah: King Fahd Holy Quran Printing Complex.
Zahedi, S. (2013). Native and non-native translators and the distribution of initial norm. (M.A. thesis in translation studies). Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran.