Developing Refletivity in EFL Teachers through a Three-dimensional Reflective Model (3DRM)

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 PhD Candidate, Islamic Azad University, South-Tehran Branch.

2 Associate Professor, Islamic Azad University, South-Tehran Branch

Abstract

Teacher education programs, and more specifically practicum courses, play a vital role in pre-service teachers’ lives since these programs are opportunities for them to get perspective on the reality of their future career. With no doubt, the most important objective of any teacher education courses is to help teachers become reflective. That is why there have been numerous studies to investigate the effect of ref- lectivity on teachers’ success and to propose methods and technique to enhance this skill. This study pro- poses a three-dimensional reflectivity model considering three different aspects of a teaching context. These interwoven factors are pedagogical, psychological, and socio-cultural aspects. These aspects are extracted from a semi-structured interview with 21 experts. Testing this model on group of student- teachers and analyzing their teaching portfolios both qualitatively and quantitatively reveals that applying the model in designing the tasks and projects of teacher education programs can increase teachers’ reflec- tivity and give them insight into how to deal with any shortcomings in their future classes. This model can reshape the teacher education programs and provide the student-teachers with an opportunity to practice something more than pedagogical concerns in these courses.

Keywords


participants and not applying any randomization methods to select them, any generalization on the findings should be done cautiously.
 
References
Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Sorensen, C., & Razavieh, A. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education (ejghth ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
Brookfield, S. D. (2017). Becoming a critically reflective teacher: John Wiley & Sons.
Brown, J. D. (2014). Mixed Methods Research for TESOL. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.
Carvalho, L., Goodyear, P., & De Laat, M. (2017). Place-Based Spaces for Networked Learning. New York: Rottledge.
Castle, P., & Buckler, S. (2018). Psychology for Teachers (First ed.). London: Sage Publication Company.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (third ed.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
De Laat, M. (2012). Enabling professional development networks: How connected are you? : Open Universteit.
Dobber, M. (2011). Collaboration in groups during teacher education: ICLON, Leiden University Graduate School of Teaching.
Doppenberg, J. J., Bakx, A. W., & Brok, P. J. d. (2012). Collaborative teacher learning in different primary school settings. Teachers and Teaching, 18(5), 547-566.
Erginel, S. Ş. (2006). Developing reflective teachers: A study on perception and improvement of reflection in pre-service teacher education. Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi: Ankara.
Etscheidt, S., Curran, C. M., & Sawyer, C. M. (2012). Promoting reflection in teacher preparation programs: A multilevel model. Teacher education and Special education, 35(1), 7-26.
Freeman, D. (2016). Educating Second Language Teachers. Oxford: OUP.
Gest, S. D., & Rodkin, P. C. (2011). Teaching practices and elementary classroom peer ecologies. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32(5), 288-296.
Gore, J. M., & Zeichner, K. M. (1991). Action research and reflective teaching in preservice teacher education: A case study from the United States. Teaching and Teacher Education, 7(2), 119-136.
Grimmett, P. P., & MacKinnon, A. M. (1992). Chapter 9: Craft knowledge and the education of teachers. Review of research in education, 18(1), 385-456.
Grossman, R. (2009). Structures for facilitating student reflection. College Teaching, 57(1), 15-22.
Gurol, A. (2011). Determining the reflective thinking skills of pre-service teachers in learning and teaching process. Energy Education Science and Technology Part B: Social and Educational Studies, 3(3), 387-402.
Hastie, P. (2016). The classroom ecology paradigm and its contribution to understanding context in physical education. Recherches & éducations(15), 29-50.
Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 11(1), 33-49.
Hendrickx, M. M., Mainhard, M. T., Boor-Klip, H. J., Cillessen, A. H., & Brekelmans, M. (2016). Social dynamics in the classroom: Teacher support and conflict and the peer ecology. Teaching and Teacher Education, 53, 30-40.
Janani, N., & Mohseni, A. (2015). The Impact of the Students’ Formative and Summative Assessment on Professional Development of Iranian EFL Instructors at Universities: Case of Islamic Azad University-South Tehran Branch-Faculty of Persian Literature and Foreign Languages. Journal of Language and Translation, 5(2), 77-86.
Jay, J. K., & Johnson, K. L. (2002). Capturing complexity: A typology of reflective practice for teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(1), 73-85.
Krishnaveni, A. R. A. (2015). Need for Teacher Education.]. In M. B. a. K. Marisami (Ed.), Teacher education (pp. 20-41). North Carolina: Laxmi Book Publication.
Littky, D. a. G. (2004). The Big Picture: Education Is Everyone's Business. Virginia: ASCD.
Mahmoodi-Shahrebabaki, M. (2015). Investigating the Associations between English Language Teachers' Reflectiveness and Teaching Experience. International Journal of Languages’ Education and Teaching.
Mathew, P., Mathew, P., & Peechattu, P. (2017). Reflective practices: A means to teacher development. Asia Pacific Journal of Contemporary Education and Communication Technology (APJCECT), 3(1), 126-131.
Murphy, J. M. (2001). Reflective Teaching in EFL. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (third ed., pp. 499-514). Boston: Helnel &Heinel.
Nezhad, A. S., & Vahedi, M. (2011). The role of educational psychology in teacher education programs. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 327-330.
Ostorga, A. N. (2006). Developing teachers who are reflective practitioners: A complex process. Issues in Teacher Education, 15(2), 5-20.
Pultorak, E. G. (1996). Followling the Developmental Process of Reflection in Novice Teachers: Three Years of Investigation. Journal of Teacher Education, 47(4), 283-291.
Rugg, D. (2010). An introduction to triangulation. Switzerland: UNAIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Division.
Schon, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. In: San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Somekh, B., & Lewin, C. (2005). Research Methods in the Social Science. London: Sage Publication.
Sparks-Langer, G. M., & Colton, A. B. (1991). Synthesis of research on teachers’ reflective thinking. Educational leadership, 48(6), 37-44.
Stanley, C. (1998). A framework for teacher reflectivity. TESOL quarterly, 32(3), 584-591.
Sze, P. (1999). Reflective teaching in second language teacher education: An overview. Educational Research Journal, 14(1), 131-155.
Taggart, G. L., & Wilson, A. P. (2005). Promoting Reflective Thinking in Teachers (second ed.). California: Corwin Press.
Trowler, P. R. (2005). A sociology of teaching, learning and enhancement: Improving practices in higher education. Papers: revista de sociologia(76), 13-32.
Valli, L. (1990). Reflective teacher education: Cases and critiques. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Van den Beemt, A., & Vrieling, E. (2016). Dimensions of social learning in teacher education: an exemplary case study.
Van Manen, M. (1977). Linking ways of knowing with ways of being practical. Curriculum Inquiry, 6, 205-228.
Van Manen, M. (1991). Reflectivity and the pedagogical movement: The normativity of pedagogical thinking and acting. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 23, 507-536.
Ward, J. R., & McCotter, S. S. (2004). Reflection as a visible outcome for preservice teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(3), 243-257.
Wellington, B., & Austin, P. (1996). Orientations to reflective practice. Educational Research, 38, 307-316.