Exploring the Role of Strategic Knowledge and Strategic Regulation in Iranian EFL Learners' Listening Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

Document Type: Original Article


1 PhD Candidate in TEFL, Department of English, Faculty of Literature, Humanities, and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate professor of Applied Linguistics, Department of TEFL, Faculty of Foreign Languages, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor of TEFL, Department of English, Faculty of Literature, Humanities, and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Drawing on the insight from metacognition theory, second language researchers conceptualize strategic knowledge and strategic regulation as the two dimensions of strategic competence in language performance. In this regard, the present study aimed at determining whether strategic knowledge and strategic regulation are related to listening performance. The study also attempted to specify how strategic knowledge and strategic regulation are related to each other and to listening performance using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. To this end, the data were gathered from a total of 343 Iranian EFL learners. They were required to answer a cognitive and metacognitive listening strategies questionnaire (CMLSQ) both before and immediately after completing the listening section of a sample TOEFL test. The correlational analysis showed that strategic knowledge and strategic regulation were significantly related to listening performance. Furthermore, the SEM analysis revealed that metacognitive strategies exert a significant, direct impact on cognitive strategies. The actual use of cognitive strategies, in turn, has a direct impact on listening performance. In other words, metacognitive strategy use as a latent trait produces significant, indirect effects on listening performance through cognitive strategies.


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