An Investigation into Norm Extraction with Regard to Domestication and Foreignization of Culture-Specific Items: A Case of Children’s Literature in the Past Four Years

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of English Language, Faculty of Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Foreign Language and Literature, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran


The aim of this research was an investigation into norm extraction regarding the domestication and foreigni- zation of culture specific items (CSIs) in the children‟s literature in the last four years (from 1393 to 1396). The corpus of this study was 8 English children‟s books with their Persian translated versions. The theoreti- cal framework of the research was associated with the Venuti translation strategies which are called domes- tication and foreignization. In order to identify the CSIs in the SL, the researcher used the taxonomies of culture-specific items of Espindola and Vasconcellos and Newmark and in order to associate each strategy with domestication or foreignization, the researcher has collected some procedures proposed by Aixelá, Vi- nay and Darbelnet and Newmark. The collected data from these books and their translations were inserted in tables and their strategies were identified by the use of the mentioned models. The findings of this research evinced that the strategies of domestication with 84.9% dominated the strategies of foreignization with 15%. As a conclusion the strategies which were regarded as the extracted norms were specified.


Aixelá, J. F. (1996). Culture-specific items in translation. Translation, power, subversion, 8, 52-78.
Cowie, M. S., & Moira. (1997). Dictionary of Translation Studies, Manchester, UK: St: Jerome Publishing.
Epstein, B. J. (2010). Manipulating the next generation: translating culture for children. Papers: Explorations into Children's Literature, 20(1), 41.
Espindola, E., & Vasconcellos, M. L. (2006). Two facets in the subtitling process: Foreignisation and/or domestication procedures in unequal cultural encounters. Fragmentos: Revista de Língua e Literatura Estrangeiras, 30.
Fornalczyk, A. (2007). Antroponym translation in children’s literature–early 20th and 21st centuries. Kalbotyra, 57(57), 93-101.
Ippolito, M. (2014). Simplification, Explicitation and Normalization: Corpus-Based Research into English to Italian Translations of Children's Classics: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Mdallel, S. (2003). Translating children’s literature in the Arab world: the state of the art. Meta: Journal des traducteurs/Meta: Translators' Journal, 48(1-2), 298-306.
Munday, J. (2013). Introducing translation studies: Theories and applications: Routledge.
Newmark, P. (1988). A textbook of translation (Vol. 66): Prentice hall New York.
Pounds, G. (2010). ‘Foreignizing’or ‘Domesticating’the Ideology of Parental Control in Translating Stories for Children: Insights from Contrastive Discourse Analysis. Applied linguistics, 32(3), 277-298.
Shokri, S., & Ketabi, S. (2015). Translating culture-specific items in Shazdeh Ehtejab: Examining foreignization and domestication. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 4(3), 3-16.
Venuti, L. (2017). The translator's invisibility: A history of translation: Routledge.
Vinay, J.-P., & Darbelnet, J. (1995). Comparative stylistics of French and English: A methodology for translation (Vol. 11): John Benjamins Publishing.