Manipulation As an Ideological Tool in the Persian Translations of Ervand Abrahamian’s The Coup: A Multimodal CDA Approach

Document Type: Original Article


1 Lecturer of Linguistics, English Department, Faculty of Humanities, Imam Khomeini Interna- tional University and English Department, Islamic Azad University, Shahreh Qods Branch, Iran.

2 MA in Translation Studies, Department of Translation Studies, Shahreh Qods Branch, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics, Department of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Kharazmi University, Tehran and Karaj, Iran.


The present Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) study aimed to explore the probable ideological manipu- lations exerted in three translations of an English political book entitled The Coup by Ervand Abraha- mian. This comparative qualitative study was conducted based on Farahzad‘s three-dimensional CDA model. The textual, paratextual, and semiotic aspects were critically scrutinized in the text of the three translations (TT1, TT2, and TT3). The findings revealed that TT1 utilized more kinds of manipulations (lexical choices, nominalization, and paratextual level) and less foreignization compared to the other two translations. Considering the amount of lexical choices, addition, and foreignization, TT3 was ranked the second; at the semiotic level, the third translator exercised greater manipulations in comparison to the first one. For TT2, however, only in terms of deletion, passivization, and covering page significant changes could be spotted. TT2‘s stance was apparently similar to that of the original author through adopting more neutral vocabulary items, passive structures, and a less neutral cover picture. As the findings of the present study illustrated, translators can achieve certain ideological goals by employing a myriad of dis- cursive strategies and structures. The findings are discussed in light of the implications of multimodal analysis of multiple translations for political translation theory and practice.


Amiri, S., & Baradaran, A. (2015). The Study of Ideological Manipulation in Persian Translations of Noam Chomsky’s Media Control Based on Farahzad’s Translation Criticism Model. Journal of Language and Translation, 5(1), 33-41.

Aslani, M., & Salmani, B. (2015). Ideology and Translation: A Critical Discourse Analysis Approach towards the Representation of Political News in Translation. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 4(3), 9. doi:10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.4n.3p.80

Beiglari, N. (2018). Translation Criticism of Three Persian Translations of 'the Hundred-Year-Old Man Who Climbed Out the Window and Disappeared' According to Farahzad's CDA Model. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 18(1), 22-31.

Bloor, M., & Bloor, T. (2007). The Practice of Critical Discourse Analysis: An Introduction. London: Hodder Arnold.

Boostani, A. (2015). Gender Ideology of Translators Implicated in Their Translations of Virginia Woolf's Novels. Cumhuriyet Journal of Science, 36(3), 916-924.

Eco, U. (1976). A theory of semiotics (Vol. 217). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Fairclough, N. (1995a). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. London: Longman.

Fairclough, N. (1995b). Media Discourse. London: Edward Arnold.

Fairclough, N. (2001). Language and Power. London: Longman.

Farahzad, F. (1998). A gestalt approach to manipulation. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 6(2), 153-158.

Farahzad, F. (2007). Translation criticism. Bukhara, 62.

Farahzad, F. (2009). Translation criticism: A CDA approach. Translation studies, 6(24), 39-47.

Farahzad, F. (2012). Translation Criticism: A Three-dimensional (model based on CDA). Translation studies, 9(36), 27-43.

Fawcett, P. (1998). Ideology and Translation. In M. Baker (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies (1 ed., pp. 106-111). New York & London: Routledge.

Guarneri, C. (2016). Twitterocracy - Democracy through Social Media:

Halliday, M. A. K. (1994). An introduction to functional grammar. London: Edward Arnold.

Keshavarz, M. H., & Alimadadi, L. Z. (2011). Manipulation of ideology in translation of political texts: A critical discourse analysis perspective. Journal of Language and Translation, 2(1), 1-12.

Kress, G. R., & Van Leeuwen, T. (1996). Reading images: The grammar of visual design: Psychology Press.

Kuo, S.-H., & Nakamura, M. (2005). Translation or transformation? A case study of language and ideology in the Taiwanese press. Discourse & Society, 16(3), 393-417.

Lörscher, W. (1991). Translation performance, translation process, and translation strategies: A psycholinguistic investigation (Vol. 4). Tübingen: G. Narr.

Mahdiyan, M., Rahbar, M., & Hosseini-Maasoum, S. M. (2013). Applying critical discourse analysis in translation of political speeches and interviews. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(1), 35-47.

Newmark, P. (1981). Approaches to translation. Oxford; New York: Pergamon Press.

Perez, M. C. (2003). Apropos of Ideology. Manchester: St Jerome Publishing.

Pirhayati, M., & Haratyan, F. (2018). The Impacts of Ideological Orientations on the Persian Translations of Virginia
Woolf’s Feminist Book-length Essay “A Room of One’s Own”. Applied Linguistics Research Journal, 2(2), 62-77.

Schäffner, C. (2003). Third Ways and new centres - ideological unity or difference? In Apropos of ideology (pp. 23-41). Manchester: St Jerome Publishing.

Schäffner, C. (2004). Political discourse analysis from the point of view of translation studies. Journal of Language and Politics, 3(1), 117-150.

Shahsavar, Z., & Naderi, M. S. M. (2015). Investigating the Influence of Ideology on Translation: A Critical Discourse Analysis of “A Tale of Two Cities” and its Persian Translations. International Journal of English Language and Translation Studies, 3(1), 35–48. doi:

Shamlou, H. (2007). The impact of ideology on translator's lexical choices in translation of political journalistic texts. (MA Unpublished), Teacher Training University, Tehran.

Van Dijk, T. A. (2011). Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction (Vol. 2). London: Sage.

Venuti, L. (2018). Rethinking translation: Discourse, subjectivity, ideology (Vol. 2). London; New York: Routledge.

Yazdanimogaddam, M., & Fakher, M. (2011). Examining the Effect of Ideology and Idiosyncrasy on Lexical Choices in Translation Studies within the CDA Framework. JOURNAL OF ENGLISH STUDIES, 1(3), 27-36.