The Efficacy of Audio Input Flooding Tasks on Learning Grammar: Uptake of Present Tense

Authors

1 Islamic Azad auniversity Ayatoolah Amoli branch

2 Department of English Language Teaching, Islamic Azad UniversityAyatollah Amoli Branch, Mazandaran, Iran

Abstract

This study sought to probe the role of input flooding through listening tasks on the uptake of simple present tense and the present progressive tense among pre - intermediate English a s Foreign Language ( EFL ) learners. To comply with the objective, an experimental design was adopted. 55 pre - intermediate learners participated in the study. They were randomly divided into one control group, non - flooding group (NFG, N= 17), and two experim ental groups including pre - task input flooding group (pre - IFG, N= 18) and post input flooding group (post - IFG, N=20). Pre - IFG received pre - task flooding while post - IFG received a post - task input flooding. To probe their improvement , the r e- searchers admini stered a posttest on grammar to all three groups . A one - way ANOVA was run and the findings revealed that the three groups were homogeneous at the onset of the intervention. The results demonstrated that both pre - IFG and post - IFG were equally effective on t he uptake of the ta r- get grammati cal forms and that the two groups outperformed NFG. The findings have implications for EFL teachers and materials developers.   

Keywords


Al-Mekhlafi,  A. M., & Nagaratnam, R. P. (2011). Difficulties in teaching and learning grammar in an EFL context.  International Journal of Instruction, 4 (2), 33-42.

AsadiAmirabadi, Y., Biria, R., & Sedaghat, A. (2014). Efficacy of input flood vs. input enhancement in the learning and long term retention of conditionals by intermediate Iranian EFL students. IJLLALW, 7 (3), 562-575.

Brown, D. (2010).  Principles of Language Teaching and Learning. London: Longman.

Farhady, H., Jafarpour, A., & Birjandi, P. (1994). Language Testing: Theory and Practice. Tehran: SAMT.

Krashen, S. D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. London: Longman.

 Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). The grammar of choice. In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (Eds.), New Perspectives on Grammar Teaching in Second Language Classrooms (pp. 103-119). Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates. 

Loewen, S., Erlam, R., & Ellis, R. (2009). The incidental acquisition of third person -s as implicit and explicit knowledge. In R. Ellis, S. Loewen, C. Elder, R. Erlam, J. Philp & H. Reinders (Eds.), Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning and teaching (pp. 262-280). Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters.

Mahvelat, E. H., & Mukundun, J. (2012). The role of cognitive style in the collocational knowledge development of Iranian EFL learners through input flood treatment. English Language Teaching, 5 (10), 105-118.

Mihara, K. (2015). Effects of phonological input as a pre-listening activity on vocabulary learning and L2 listening comprehension test performance. TESL-EJ, 19 (2), 19-30.

Morelli, J. A. (2003). Ninth Graders’ Attitudes toward Different Approaches to Grammar Instruction. Unpublished Dissertation. The Graduate School of Education, Fordham University, New York.

Nassaji, H., & Fotos, S. (2011). Teaching grammar in second language classrooms: Integrating form-focused instruction in communicative context. New York, NY: Routledge.

Rao, Z. (2002). Chinese students’ perceptions of communicative and non-communic ative activities in EFL classroom. System, 30, 85-105. doi: 10.1016/S0346-251X(01)00050-1.

Rikhtegar, O., & Gholami, M. (2015). The effects of pre- versus post presentation input flooding via reading on the young Iranian EFL learners’ acquisition of simple past tense. English Language Teaching 8 (3), 80-88.

Richards, J. C. (2012). Basic Tactics for Listening. Oxford: OUP

Schmidt, R. (1994). Deconstructing consciousness in search for useful definitions for applied linguistics. AILA Review, 11, 11-26. doi: 10.12691/education-3-9-5.

Seyedtajeddinni, K. (2014). The Impact of Audio Input Enhancement on EFL Learners’ Grammar Learning from Varying Proficiency Levels. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1706 – 1712. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.59

Sharwood Smith, M. (1993). Input enhancement in instructed SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15(2), 165-179. doi: 10.1017/S0272263100011943

Trahey, M. (1996). Positive evidence in second language acquisition: Some long term effects. Second language research, 12(2), 111-139.

 doi:10.1177/026765839601200201

Trahey, M., & White, L. (2008). Positive evidence and preemption in the second language classroom. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15(2), 181-204. doi:10.1017/S0272263100011955

Widdowson, H. G. (1990). Grammar and nonsense and learning. In H. G. Widdowson, Aspects of language teaching (pp. 79-98). Oxford: Oxford University Press.