Direct and Semi-Direct Validation: Test Takers’ Perceptions, Evaluations and Anxiety towards Speaking Module of an English Proficiency Test

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of English Language Teaching, Islamic Azad University; Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


This research study employed a mixed-methods approach to investigate the test takers’ perceptions and anx- iety in relation to an English language proficiency test called Community English Program (CEP). This study also evaluated the direct and semi-direct modes for speaking module of this test. To this end, 300 Eng- lish as Foreign Language (EFL) students were recruited in the study as test takers. They were invited to take the CEP speaking test using five tasks of Description, Narration, Summarization, Role-play and Exposition in both direct and semi-direct test modes. Their perceptions and evaluations of both test modes, through questionnaires, interviews and observations were examined. The results of the factor analysis revealed that test takers’ evaluations of both direct and semi-direct speaking modes were quite similar, yet not exactly identical. On the other hand, although test takers’ anxiety was shown influential, the findings showed that the most determining factor in test takers’ oral performance was their capability level. Capability level was the main reason why some test takers out-performed the others. The findings also demonstrated that test difficulty identification was complex, difficult and at the same time multidimensional. The quantitative re- sults displayed that the raters were scoring speaking performances differently; the qualitative results also provided logic for the reasons of these differences on the side of the test takers. Finally, the impact of test takers’ gender differences on their perceptions was found nonsignificant.


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