Using Teacher- and Student-Developed Graphic Organizers as a Writing Tool

Document Type: Original Article


Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch


This study investigated 1) whether the effect of teacher-developed graphic organizers vis-à-vis student-developed ones was more significant on improving intermediate EFL learners’ writing, and 2) whether the use of both graphic organizers had any impact on their writing. The participants were selected in two stages: 130 students sat for a piloted proficiency test. Those who scored above half of the total score (N = 93) took part in a writing test and, ultimately, 60 whose scores fell between one standard deviation above and below the mean were divided equally and randomly into two experimental and control groups. Both groups underwent a 20-session course of which 10 sessions were allocated to teaching writing with the experimental group receiving five sessions of student-developed organizers first and, subsequently, another five sessions of teacher-developed ones. At the end of each series of five sessions, a writing test was administered to both groups. To verify the two null hypotheses, a mixed ANOVA was run (between-subject factor of having organizers in the experimental group and within-subject factor of organizer type in the experimental group). The data revealed that using graphic organizers had no significant impact on improving EFL learners’ writing; however, the use of teacher-developed graphic organizers did have a more significant effect than that of student-developed ones.


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