Development and Validation of an Instrument to Evaluate English Language Teachers' Lesson Planning Self-concept

Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literature, Department of English Language and literature, University of Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Education, University of Tasmania (UTAS), Australia

3 Faculty of Persian Literature and Foreign Languages, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument to evaluate English language teachers’ lesson plan- ning self-concept. To this end, 30 English teachers were asked to prepare a sample lesson plan and 15 of them were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview. A tentative questionnaire including six fac- tors namely: classroom management, lesson planning conformity, planning efficacy, variety and adaptation, goal setting, and metacognitive knowledge, was then designed. The designed instrument was piloted to 300 English language teachers and validated using exploratory factor analysis. The findings of the study sug- gested a model questionnaire (30 items), including five factors (goal setting and metacognitive knowledge as one factor), for the evaluation of English language teachers’ lesson planning self-concept.


Abadi, E. A. M., & Baradaran, A. (2013). The relationship between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies in Ira-nian EFL learners with different language proficiency level. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Litera-ture, 2(3), 176-185.
Aliakbari, M., & Hayatzadeh, A. (2008). Varia-tion of language strategies among Iranian English students: The effect of gender. In-ternational Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 4(3), 72-87.
Alsadik, H. (2014). A survey study on the vo-cabulary learning strategies used by uni-versity students in south Iraq and their insctructors' awareness levels (Un-published master thesis), Near East Uni-versity, Lefkoşa.
Amirian, R., & Heshmatifar, Z. (2013). A survey on vocabulary learning strategies: A case of Iranian EFL university students. Jour-nal of Language Teaching and Research, 4(3), 636-641.
Asgari, A., & Mustapha, G. B. (2011). The type of vocabulary learning strategies used by ESL students in University Putra Malaysia.
English Language Teaching, 4(2), 84-90.Celuch, K., Black, G., & Warthan, B. (2009).
Student self-identity as a critical thinker: The influence of attitudes, attitude strength, and normative beliefs. Journal of Marketing Education, 31(1), 31-39.
Cohen, A. D. (2007). Coming to terms with lan-guage learner strategies: Surveying the experts. In A. D. Cohen & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language learner strategies: Thir-ty years of research and practice (pp. 29-45). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press
Facione, N. (2013). California Critical Thinking Skills Test Manual. Millbrae: The Cali-fornia Academic Press/Insight Assess-ment.
Facione, P. A. (1990a). The California Critical Thinking Skills Test--College Level. Technical Report# 1. Experimental Vali-dation and Content Validity (pp. 1-14).Millbrae, CA.
Facione, P. A. (1990b). The Delphi report. Criti-cal Thinking: A Statement of Expert Con-sensus for Purposes of Educational As-sessment and Instruction (pp. 1-19).Millbrae, CA
Facione, P. A. (1992). The California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST): Forms A and B and the CCTST Test manual. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press.
Fahim, M., & Ahmadian, M. (2012). Critical thinking and Iranian EFL context. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(4), 793-800.
Fahim, M., Bagherkazemi, M., & Alemi, M. (2010). The relationship between test tak-ers‟ critical thinking ability and their per-formance on the reading section of TOEFL. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(6), 830-837.
Fahim, M., & Komijani, A. (2010). Critical thinking ability, L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 vocabulary learning strategies. Journal of English studies, 1(1), 23-38.
Fan, M. Y. (2003). Frequency of use, perceived usefulness, and actual usefulness of sec-ond language vocabulary strategies: A study of Hong Kong learners. The Mod-ern Language Journal, 87(2), 222-241.
GhorbanDordiNejad, F., & Heydarib, M. (2012). On the relationship between Iranian EFL students’ critical thinking ability and their reading comprehension micro-skills. Phil-ippine ESL Journal, 9, 24-37.
Griffiths, C. (2003). Patterns of language learning strategy use. System, 31(3), 367-383.
Grosser, M., & Nel, M. (2013). The relationship between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency of pro-spective teachers. South African Journal of Education, 33(2), 1-17.
Hamzah, M., Kafipour, R., & Abdullah, S. K. (2009). Vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian undergraduate EFL students and
Schmidt, R. W. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied        Linguistics, 11(2), 129-58.
Schmidt, R. W. (1993). Awareness and second language acquisition. Annual Review of         Applied Linguistics, 13, 206-26.
Tomlin, R. S., & Villa, V. (1994). Attention incognitive science and second language            acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 183-203.
VanPatten, B. (1990): Attending to content and form in the input: An experime         consciousness. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 287-301.
VanPatten, B. (1996). Input processing and grammar instruction: Theory and research.       Norwood, NJ: Ablex publishing corporation.
VanPatten, B. (2002). Processing instruction: An update. Language Learning, 52(4),            755-803.
VanPatten, B. (2003). From input to output: A teacher’s guide to second language   acquisition. Boston: The McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
VanPatten, B. (2004). Input processing in SLA. In B. VanPatten (Ed.), Processing instruction: Theory, research and commentary (pp.5-32). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence          Erlbaum Associates.
VanPatten, B. (2007). Input processing in adult second language acquisition. In B.    VanPatten & J. Williams (Ed.), Theories in second language acquisition (pp.             115-135). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
VanPatten, B., & Oikkenon, S. (1996). Explanation versus structured input in processing      instruction. SSLA, 18, 495-510.
Wong, W. (2001). Modality and attention to meaning and form in the input. Studies in          Second Language Acquisition, 23, 345-368.
Wong, W. (2004). The nature of processing instruction. In B. VanPatten (Ed.), Processi        instruction: Theory, research and commentary (pp. 33-67).           Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wong, W. (2005). Input Enhancement: From theory and research to the classroom.             NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.